English Reading Tests

English reading for Japanese high school students: the Common Test for University Admissions in 2021 DAY 2

ad

Part 1A

You have invited your friend Shelley to join you on your family’s overnight camping trip. She has sent a text message to your mobile phone asking some questions.


Hi! I’m packing my bag for tomorrow and I want to check some things. Will it get cold in the tent at night? Do I need to bring a blanket? I know you told me last week, but just to be sure, where and what time are we meeting?


Shelley, I’ll bring warm sleeping bags for everyone, but maybe you should bring your down jacket. Bring comfortable footwear because we’ll walk up Mt. Kanayama the next day. We’ll pick you up outside your house at 6 a.m. If you’re not outside, I’ll call you. See you in the morning!


Thanks! I can’t wait! I’ll bring my jacket and hiking boots with me. I’ll be ready! 🙂

Question 1: Shelley asks you if she needs to bring [1].

(1) a blanket
(2) a jacket
(3) sleeping bags
(4) walking shoes

Question 2: You expect Shelley to [2] tomorrow morning.

(1) call you as soon as she is ready
(2) come to see you at the campsite
(3) pick you up in front of your house
(4) wait for you outside her house


Answer

Question 1 [1] (1)
Question 2 [2] (4)

ad

Part 1B

You have received a flyer for an English speech contest from your teacher, and you want to apply.


The 7th Youth Leader Speech Contest

The Youth Leader Society will hold its annual speech contest. Our goal is to help young Japanese people develop communication and leadership skills.

This year’s competition has three stages. Our judges will select the winners of each stage. To take part in the Grand Final, you must successfully pass all three stages.

The Grand Final
Place: Centennial Hall
Date: January 8, 2022
Topic: Today’s Youth, Tomorrow’s Leaders

GRAND PRIZE
The winner can attend The Leadership Workshop in Wellington, New Zealand in March 2022.

Contest information:

StagesThings to UploadDetails2021 Deadlines & Dates
Stage 1A brief outlineNumber of words:
150-200
Upload by 5 p.m.
on August 12
Stage 2Video of you
giving your speech
Time:
7-8 minutes
Upload by 5 p.m.
on September 19
Stage 3Local Contests:
Winners will be announced
and go on to the Grand Final.
Held on
November 21

Grand Final Grading Information

ContentGestures &
Performance
Voice &
Eye Contact
SlidesAnswering Questions
from Judges
50%5%5%10%30%

> You must upload your materials online. All dates and times are Japan Standard Time (JST).
> You can check the results of Stage 1 and 2 on the website five days after the deadline for each stage.

For more details and an application form, click here.


Question 1: To take part in the first stage, you should upload a Answering Questions from Judges [3].

(1) completed speech script
(2) set of slides for the speech
(3) summary of your speech
(4) video of yourself speaking

Question 2: From which date can you check the result of the second stage? [4]

(1) September 14
(2) September 19
(3) September 24
(4) September 29

Question 3: To get a high score in the Grand Final, you should pay most attention to your content and [5].

(1) expressions and gestures
(2) responses to the judges
(3) visual materials
(4) voice control

Answer

Question 1: [3] (3)
Question 2: [4] (3)
Question 3: [5] (2)

ad

Part 2A

You are reading the results of a survey about single-use and reusable bottles that your classmates answered as part of an environmental campaign in the UK.

Q1: How many single-use bottled drinks do you purchase per week?

Number of bottlesNumber of studentsWeekly subtotal
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
2
2
2
3
4
9
0
7
0
2
4
9
16
45
0
49
Toal29125

Q2: Do you have your own reusable bottle?

Summary of responsesNumber of studentsPercent of students
Yes, I do.
Yes, but I don’t use it.
No, I don’t.
3
14
12
10.3
48.3
41.4
Toal29100.0

Q3: If you don’t use a reusable bottle, what are your reasons?

Summary of responsesNumber of
students
It takes too much time to wash reusable bottles.
I think single-use bottles are more convenient.
Many flavoured drinks are available in single-use bottles.
Buying a single-use bottle doesn’t cost much.
I can buy drinks from vending machines at school.
I feel reusable bottles are too heavy.
My home has dozens of single-use bottles.
Single-use bottled water can be stored unopened for a long time.
(Other reasons)
24
17
14
10
7
4
3
2
4

Question 1: The results of Q1 show that [6].

(1) each student buys fewer than four single-use bottles a week on average
(2) many students buy fewer than two bottles a week
(3) more than half the students buy at least five bottles a week
(4) the students buy more than 125 bottles a week

Question 2: The results of Q2 show that more than half the students [7].

(1) don’t have their own reusable bottle
(2) have their own reusable bottle
(3) have their own reusable bottle but don’t use it
(4) use their own reusable bottle

Question 3: One opinion expressed by your classmates in Q3 is that [8].

(1) some students have a stock of single-use bottles at home
(2) there are vending machines for buying drinks at school
(3) washing reusable bottles takes a lot of time
(4) water in unopened single-use bottles lasts a long time

Question 4: One fact stated by your classmates in Q3 is that single-use bottles are [9].

(1) available to buy at school
(2) convenient to use
(3) light enough to carry around
(4) not too expensive to buy

Question 5: What is the most likely reason why your classmates do not use reusable bottles? [10]

(1) There are many single-use bottled drinks stored at home.
(2) There is less variety of drinks available.
(3) They are expensive for your classmates.
(4) They are troublesome to deal with.

Answer

Question 1: [6] (3)
Question 2: [7] (2)
Question 3: [8] (3)
Question 4: [9] (1)
Question 5: [10] (4)

Part 2B

You need to decide what classes to take in a summer programme in the UK, so you are reading course information and a former student’s comment about the course.


COMMUNICATION AND INTERCULTURAL STUDIES

Dr Christopher Bennet
bennet.christopher@ire-u.ac.uk
Call: 020-9876-1234
Office Hours: by appointment only

3-31 August 2021
Tuesday & Friday
1.00 pm-2.30 pm
9 classes – 1 credit

Course description: We will be studying different cultures and learning how to communicate with people from different cultures. In this course, students will need to present their ideas for dealing with intercultural issues.

Goals: After this course you should be able to:

-understand human relations among different cultures
-present solutions for different intercultural problems
-express your opinions through discussion and presentations

Textbook: Smith, S. (2019). Intercultural studies. New York: DNC Inc.

Evaluation: 60% overall required to pass

ーtwo presentations: 90% (45% each)
ーparticipation: 10%


Course-takers’ evaluations (87 reviewers) ★★★★★★ (Average: 4.89)
Comment
🙂 Take this class! Chris is a great teacher. He is very smart and kind. The course is a little challenging but easy enough to pass. You will learn a lot about differences in culture. My advice would be to participate in every class. It really helped me make good presentations.


Question 1: What will you do in this course? [11]

(1) Discuss various topics about culture
(2) Visit many different countries
(3) Watch a film about human relations
(4) Write a final report about culture

Question 2: This class is aimed at students who [12].

(1) are interested in intercultural issues
(2) can give good presentations
(3) like sightseeing in the UK
(4) need to learn to speak English

Question 3: One fact about Dr Bennet is that [13].

(1) he has good teaching skills
(2) he is a nice instructor
(3) he is in charge of this course
(4) he makes the course challenging

Question 4: One opinion expressed about the class is that [14].

(1) it is not so difficult to get a credit
(2) most students are satisfied with the course
(3) participation is part of the final grade
(4) students have classes twice a week

Question 5: What do you have to do to pass this course? [15]

(1) Come to every class and join the discussions
(2) Find an intercultural issue and discuss a solution
(3) Give good presentations about intercultural issues
(4) Make an office appointment with Dr Bennet

Answer

Question 1 [11] (1)
Question 2 [12] (1)
Question 3 [13] (3)
Question 4 [14] (1)
Question 5 [15] (3)

Part 3A

Your British friend, Jan, visited a new amusement park and posted a blog about her experience.


Sunny Mountain Park: A Great Place to Visit
Posted by Jan at 9.37 pm on 15 September 2020

Sunny Mountain Park finally opened last month! It’s a big amusement park with many exciting attractions, including a huge roller coaster (see the map). I had a fantastic time there with my friends last week.

We couldn’t wait to try the roller coaster, but first we took the train round the park to get an idea of its layout. From the train, we saw the Picnic Zone and thought it would be a good place to have lunch. However, it was already very crowded, so we decided to go to the Food Court instead. Before lunch, we went to the Discovery Zone. It was well worth the wait to experience the scientific attractions there. In the afternoon, we enjoyed several rides near Mountain Station. Of course, we tried the roller coaster, and we weren’t disappointed. On our way back to the Discovery Zone to enjoy more attractions, we took a short break at a rest stop. There, we got a lovely view over the lake to the castle. We ended up at the Shopping Zone, where we bought souvenirs for our friends and family.

Sunny Mountain Park is amazing! Our first visit certainly won’t be our last.


Question 1: From Jan’s post, you learn that [16].

(1) Jan skipped going to the Shopping Zone for gifts
(2) Jan waited for a while to enjoy the scientific attractions
(3) the Food Court was more crowded than the Picnic Zone
(4) the roller coaster did not meet Jan’s expectations

Question 2: At which rest stop did Jan and her friends take a break in the afternoon? [17]

(1) Rest Stop A
(2) Rest Stop B
(3) Rest Stop C
(4) Rest Stop D

Answer

Question 1 [16] (2)
Question 2 [17] (2)

Part 3B

Your friend in the UK introduced her favourite musician to you. Wanting to learn more, you found the following article in a music magazine.


Dave Starr, a Living Legend

At one time, Black Swan were the biggest rock band in the UK, and their dynamic leader Dave Starr played a large part in that achievement. Still performing as a solo singer, Dave’s incredible talent has inspired generations of young musicians.

When he was a little boy, Dave was always singing and playing with toy instruments. He was never happier than when he was playing his toy drum. At age seven, he was given his first real drum set, and by 10, he could play well. By 14, he had also mastered the guitar. When he was still a high school student, he became a member of The Bluebirds, playing rhythm guitar. To get experience, The Bluebirds played for free at school events and in community centres. The band built up a small circle of passionate fans.

Dave’s big break came when, on his 18 th birthday, he was asked to become the drummer for Black Swan. In just two years, the band’s shows were selling out at large concert halls. It came as a shock, therefore, when the lead vocalist quit to spend more time with his family. However, Dave jumped at the chance to take over as lead singer even though it meant he could no longer play his favourite instrument.

In the following years, Black Swan became increasingly successful, topping the music charts and gaining even more fans. Dave became the principal song writer, and was proud of his contribution to the band. However, with the addition of a keyboard player, the music gradually changed direction. Dave became frustrated, and he and the lead guitarist decided to leave and start a new group. Unfortunately, Dave’s new band failed to reach Black Swan’s level of success, and stayed together for only 18 months.


Question 1: Put the following events ((1)~(4)) into the order in which they happened. [18]=>[19]=>[20]=>[21]

(1) Dave became a solo artist.
(2) Dave gave up playing the drums.
(3) Dave joined a band as the guitarist.
(4) Dave reached the peak of his career.

Question 2: Dave became the lead singer of Black Swan because [22].

(1) he preferred singing to playing the drums
(2) he wanted to change the band’s musical direction
(3) the other band members wanted more success
(4) the previous singer left for personal reasons

Question 3: From this story, you learn that [23].

(1) Black Swan contributed to changing the direction of rock music
(2) Black Swan’s goods sold very well at concert halls
(3) Dave displayed a talent for music from an early age
(4) Dave went solo as he was frustrated with the lead guitarist

Answer

Question 1 [18][19][20][21] (3),(2),(4),(1)
Question 2 [22] (4)
Question 3 [23] (3)

Part 4

You are preparing a presentation on tourism in Japan. You emailed data about visitors to Japan in 2018 to your classmates, Hannah and Rick. Based on their responses, you draft a presentation outline.

The data:

The responses to your email:


Hi,

Thanks for your email! That’s interesting data. I know that the number of international visitors to Japan increased previously, but I never paid attention to their length of stay. I assume that visitors from Asia come for shorter stays since they can go back and forth easily.

Also, the table shows that Asian visitors, overall, tend to spend more on shopping compared to visitors from Europe and Australia. I guess this is probably because gift-giving in Asian cultures is really important, and they want to buy gifts for friends and family. For example, I have seen many Asian tourists shopping around Ginza, Harajuku, and Akihabara. Perhaps they don’t have to spend so much money on accommodations, so they can spend more on shopping. I’d like to talk about this.

However, I’ve heard that visitors from Asia are now becoming interested in doing some other things instead of shopping. We may see some changes in this kind of data in the near future!

Best,
Hannah
P.S. This message is going to Rick, too.


Hi,

Thanks for sending your data! This will help us prepare for our presentation!

I notice from the data that Australians spend the most on entertainment. I’ll present on this.

Also, the other day, on Japanese TV, I saw a program about Australian people enjoying winter sports in Hokkaido. I wonder how much they spend. I’ll look for more information. If you find any, please let me know. This could be good for a future project.

In addition, I agree with Hannah that there seems to be a big difference in the length of stay depending on the country or region the visitor is from.

What about you? Do you want to talk about what Hannah found in relation to the spending habits? I think this is very interesting.

All the best,
Rick
P.S. This message is going to Hannah, too.

The presentation draft:

Presentation Title: [24]
Presenter Topic
Hannah: [25]
Rick: [26]
me: Relation to the length of stay
Example comparison:
People from [27] stay just over half the time in Japan compared to people from [28], but spend slightly more money on entertainment. Themes for Future Research: [29]

Question 1: Which is the best for [24]?

(1) Money Spent on Winter Holidays in Hokkaido
(2) Shopping Budgets of International Tourists in Tokyo
(3) Spending Habits of International Visitors in Japan
(4) The Increase of Spending on Entertainment in Japan

Question 2: Which is the best for [25]?

(1) Activities of Australian visitors in Japan
(2) Asian visitors’ food costs in Japan
(3) Gift-giving habits in European cultures
(4) Patterns in spending by visitors from Asia

Question 3: Which is the best for [26]?

(1) Australian tourists’ interest in entertainment
(2) Chinese spending habits in Tokyo
(3) TV programs about Hokkaido in Australia
(4) Various experiences Asians enjoy in Japan

Question 4: You agree with Rick’s suggestion and look at the data. Choose the best for [27] and [28].

(1) Australia
(2) China
(3) France
(4) Taiwan

Question 5: Which is the best combination for [29]?

A : Australians’ budgets for winter sports in Japan
B : Future changes in the number of international visitors to Tokyo
C : Popular food for international visitors to Hokkaido
D : What Asian visitors in Japan will spend money on in the future

(1) A, B
(2) A, C
(3) A, D
(4) B, C
(5) B, D
(6) C, D

Anwer

Question 1 [24] (3)
Question 2 [25] (4)
Question 3 [26] (1)
Question 4 [27][28] (2),(3)
Question 5 [29] (3)

Part 5

You are going to give a talk on a person you would like to have interviewed if they were still alive. Read the following passage about the person you have chosen and complete your notes.

Vivian Maier

This is the story of an American street photographer who kept her passion for taking pictures secret until her death. She lived her life as a caregiver, and if it had not been for the sale of her belongings at an auction house, her incredible work might never have been discovered.

It was 2007. A Chicago auction house was selling off the belongings of an old woman named Vivian Maier. She had stopped paying storage fees, and so the company decided to sell her things. Her belongings-mainly old photographs and negatives-were sold to three buyers: Maloof, Slattery, and Prow.

Slattery thought Vivian’s work was interesting so he published her photographs on a photo-sharing website in July 2008. The photographs received little attention. Then, in October, Maloof linked his blog to his selection of Vivian’s photographs, and right away, thousands of people were viewing them. Maloof had found Vivian Maier’s name with the prints, but he was unable to discover anything about her. Then an Internet search led him to a 2009 newspaper article about her death. Maloof used this information to discover more about Vivian’s life, and it was the combination of Vivian’s mysterious life story and her photographs that grabbed everyone’s attention.

Details of Vivian’s life are limited for two reasons. First, since no one had interviewed her while she was alive, no one knew why she took so many photographs. Second, it is clear from interviews with the family she worked for that Vivian was a very private person. She had few friends. Besides, she had kept her hobby a secret.

Vivian was born in 1926 in the United States to an Austrian father and a French mother. The marriage was not a happy one, and it seems her mother and father lived apart for several years. During her childhood Vivian frequently moved between the US and France, sometimes living in France, and sometimes in the US. For a while, Vivian and her mother lived in New York with Jeanne Bertrand, a successful photographer. It is believed that Vivian became interested in photography as a young adult, as her first photos were taken in France in the late 1940s using a very simple camera. She returned to New York in 1951, and in 1956 she moved to Chicago to work as a caregiver for the Gensburg family. This job gave her more free time for taking photographs.

In 1952, at the age of 26, she purchased her first 6 × 6 camera, and it was with this that most of her photographs of life on the streets of Chicago were taken. For over 30 years she took photos of children, the elderly, the rich, and the poor. Some people were not even aware that their picture was being taken. She also took a number of self-portraits. Some were reflections of herself in a shop window. Others were of her own shadow. Vivian continued to document Chicago life until the early 1970s, when she changed to a new style of photography.

An international award-winning documentary film called Finding Vivian Maier brought interest in her work to a wider audience. The film led to exhibitions in Europe and the US. To choose the photographs that best represent her style, those in charge of the exhibitions have tried to answer the question, “What would Vivian Maier have printed?” In order to answer this question, they used her notes, the photos she actually did print, and information about her preferences as reported by the Gensburgs. Vivian was much more interested in capturing moments rather than the outcome. So, one could say the mystery behind Vivian’s work remains largely “undeveloped.”


Presentation notes:

Vivian Maier

Vivian the photographer

☆ She took many pictures while she was working as a caregiver.
☆ Nobody interviewed her while she was alive, so we do not know much about her.
☆ [30]

Vivian’s work

☆ Her photographs mainly concentrated on:
・the young and old, and the rich and poor
・[31]
・[32]

How her work gained recognition

☆ Vivian’s storage fees were not paid.
☆ [33]
☆ [34]
☆ [35]
☆ [36]
☆ The combining of information on her life and work increased people’s interest.

How her work became known worldwide

☆ An award-winning documentary film about her life and work helped capture a new audience.
☆ [37]

The ‘BIG’ unanswered question: [38]

Question 1: Choose the best statement for [30].

(1) Her work remained undiscovered until it was sold at auction.
(2) She is thought to have become attracted to photography in her thirties.
(3) She took her camera wherever she went and showed her pictures to others.
(4) The majority of her photos were taken in New York.

Question 2: Choose the two best items for [31] and [32]. (The order does not matter.)

(1) documentary-style pictures
(2) industrial landscapes
(3) natural landscapes
(4) pictures of herself
(5) shop windows

Question 3: Put the following events into the order in which they happened. [33]~[36]

(1) A buyer linked his blog to some of her pictures.
(2) A report on Vivian’s death was published in a newspaper.
(3) An auction company started selling her old photographs and negatives.
(4) Her work was published on the Internet.

Question 4: Choose the best statement for [37].

(1) Exhibitions of her work have been held in different parts of the world.
(2) Her photography book featuring street scenes won an award.
(3) She left detailed instructions on how her photographs should be treated.
(4) The children of Vivian’s employers provided their photographs.

Question 5: Choose the best question for [38].

(1) “What type of camera did she use for taking photos?”
(2) “Where did she keep all her negatives and prints?”
(3) “Why did she leave New York to become a caregiver?”
(4) “Why did she take so many photos without showing them to anyone?”


Question 1: [30] (1)
Question 2: [31][32] (1),(4)
Question 3: [33][34][35][36] (3),(4),(1),(2)
Question 4: [37] (1)
Question 5: [38] (4)

Part 6A

You are an exchange student in the United States and you have joined the school’s drama club. You are reading an American online arts magazine article to get some ideas to help improve the club.

Recent Changes at the Royal Shakespeare Company

By John Smith
Feb. 20, 2020

We are all different. While most people recognize that the world is made up of a wide variety of people, diversity-showing and accepting our differences is often not reflected in performing arts organizations. For this reason, there is an increasing demand for movies and plays to better represent people from various backgrounds as well as those with disabilities. Arts Council England, in response to this demand, is encouraging all publicly funded arts organizations to make improvements in this area. One theater company responding positively is the Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC), which is one of the most influential theater companies in the world.

Based in Stratford-upon-Avon in the UK, the RSC produces plays by William Shakespeare and a number of other famous authors. These days, the RSC is focused on diversity in an attempt to represent all of UK society accurately. It works hard to balance the ethnic and social backgrounds, the genders, and the physical abilities of both performers and staff when hiring.

During the summer 2019 season, the RSC put on three of Shakespeare’s comedies: As You Like It, The Taming of the Shrew, and Measure for Measure. Actors from all over the country were employed, forming a 27-member cast, reflecting the diverse ethnic, geographical, and cultural population of the UK today. To achieve gender balance for the entire season, half of all roles were given to male actors and half to female actors. The cast included three actors with disabilities (currently referred to as “differently-abled” actors)-one visually-impaired, one hearing-impaired, and one in a wheelchair.

Changes went beyond the hiring policy. The RSC actually rewrote parts of the plays to encourage the audience to reflect on male/female power relationships. For example, female and male roles were reversed. In The Taming of the Shrew, the role of “the daughter” in the original was transformed into “the son” and played by a male actor. In the same play, a male servant character was rewritten as a female servant. That role was played by Amy Trigg, a female actor who uses a wheelchair. Trigg said that she was excited to play the role and believed that the RSC’s changes would have a large impact on other performing arts organizations. Excited by all the diversity, other members of the RSC expressed the same hope-that more arts organizations would be encouraged to follow in the RSC’s footsteps.

The RSC’s decision to reflect diversity in the summer 2019 season can be seen as a new model for arts organizations hoping to make their organizations inclusive. While there are some who are reluctant to accept diversity in classic plays, others welcome it with open arms. Although certain challenges remain, the RSC has earned its reputation as the face of progress.

Question 1: According to the article, the RSC [39] in the summer 2019 season.

(1) gave job opportunities to famous actors
(2) hired three differently-abled performers
(3) looked for plays that included 27 characters
(4) put on plays by Shakespeare and other authors

Question 2: The author of this article most likely mentions Amy Trigg because she [40].

(1) performed well in one of the plays presented by the RSC
(2) struggled to be selected as a member of the RSC
(3) was a good example of the RSC’s efforts to be inclusive
(4) was a role model for the members of the RSC

Question 3: You are summarizing this article for other club members. Which of the following options best completes your summary?

[Summary]

The Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) in the UK is making efforts to reflect the population of UK society in its productions. In order to achieve this, it has started to employ a balance of female and male actors and staff with a variety of backgrounds and abilities. It has also made changes to its plays. Consequently, the RSC has [41].

(1) attracted many talented actors from all over the world
(2) completed the 2019 season without any objections
(3) contributed to matching social expectations with actions
(4) earned its reputation as a conservative theater company

Question 4: Your drama club agrees with the RSC’s ideas. Based on these ideas, your drama club might [42].

(1) perform plays written by new international authors
(2) present classic plays with the original story
(3) raise funds to buy wheelchairs for local people
(4) remove gender stereotypes from its performances

Answer

Question 1 [39] (2)
Question 2 [40] (3)
Question 3 [41] (3)
Question 4 [42] (4)

Part 6B

You are one of a group of students making a poster presentation for a wellness fair at City Hall. Your group’s title is Promoting Better Oral Health in the Community. You have been using the following passage to create the poster.


Oral Health: Looking into the Mirror

In recent years, governments around the world have been working to raise awareness about oral health. While many people have heard that brushing their teeth multiple times per day is a good habit, they most likely have not considered all the reasons why this is crucial. Simply stated, teeth are important. Teeth are required to pronounce words accurately. In fact, poor oral health can actually make it difficult to speak. An even more basic necessity is being able to chew well. Chewing breaks food down and makes it easier for the body to digest it. Proper chewing is also linked to the enjoyment of food. The average person has experienced the frustration of not being able to chew on one side after a dental procedure. A person with weak teeth may experience this disappointment all the time. In other words, oral health impacts people’s quality of life.

While the basic functions of teeth are clear, many people do not realize that the mouth provides a mirror for the body. Research shows that good oral health is a clear sign of good general health. People with poor oral health are more likely to develop serious physical diseases. Ignoring recommended daily oral health routines can have negative effects on those already suffering from diseases. Conversely, practicing good oral health may even prevent disease. A strong, healthy body is often a reflection of a clean, well-maintained mouth.

Maintaining good oral health is a lifelong mission. The Finnish and US governments recommend that parents take their infants to the dentist before the baby turns one year old. Finland actually sends parents notices. New Zealand offers free dental treatment to everyone up to age 18. The Japanese government promotes an 8020 (Eighty-Twenty) Campaign. As people age, they can lose teeth for various reasons. The goal of the campaign is still to have at least 20 teeth in the mouth on one’s 80th birthday.

Taking a closer look at Japan, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has been analyzing survey data on the number of remaining teeth in seniors for many years. One researcher divided the oldest participants into four age groups: A (70-74), B (75-79), C (80-84), and D (85+). In each survey, with the exception of 1993, the percentages of people with at least 20 teeth were in A-B-C-D order from high to low. Between 1993 and 1999, however, Group A improved only about six percentage points, while the increase for B was slightly higher. In 1993, 25.5% in Group A had at least 20 teeth, but by 2016 the Group D percentage was actually 0.2 percentage points higher than Group A’s initial figure. Group B increased steadily at first, but went up dramatically between 2005 and 2011. Thanks to better awareness, every group has improved significantly over the years.

Dentists have long recommended brushing after meals. People actively seeking excellent oral health may brush several times per day. Most brush their teeth before they go to sleep and then again at some time the following morning. Dentists also believe it is important to floss daily, using a special type of string to remove substances from between teeth. Another prevention method is for a dentist to seal the teeth using a plastic gel (sealant) that hardens around the tooth surface and prevents damage. Sealant is gaining popularity especially for use with children. This only takes one coating and prevents an amazing 80% of common dental problems.

Visiting the dentist annually or more frequently is key. As dental treatment sometimes causes pain, there are those who actively avoid seeing a dentist. However, it is important that people start viewing their dentist as an important ally who can, literally, make them smile throughout their lives.

Your presentation poster:


Promoting Better Oral Health in the Community

1.Importance of Teeth

A. Crucial to speak properly
B. Necessary to break down food
C. Helpful to enjoy food
D. Needed to make a good impression
E. Essential for good quality of life

2. [44]

Finland & the US: Recommendations for treatment before age 1
New Zealand: Free treatment for youth
Japan: 8020 (Eighty-Twenty) Campaign (see Figure 1)

[45]

Figure 1. The percentage of people with at least 20 teeth.

3.Helpful Advice

[46]

[47]

Question 1: Under the first poster heading, your group wants to express the importance of teeth as explained in the passage. Everyone agrees that one suggestion does not fit well. Which of the following should you not include? [43]

(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
(5) E

Question 2: You have been asked to write the second heading for the poster. Which of the following is the most appropriate? [44]

(1) National 8020 Programs Targeting Youth
(2) National Advertisements for Better Dental Treatment
(3) National Efforts to Encourage Oral Care
(4) National Systems Inviting Infants to the Dentist

Question 3: You want to show the results of the researcher’s survey in Japan. Which of the following graphs is the most appropriate one for your poster? [45]

Question 4: Under the last poster heading, you want to add specific advice based on the passage. Which two of the following statements should you use? (The order does not matter.) [46]・[47]

(1) Brush your teeth before you eat breakfast.
(2) Check your teeth in the mirror every day.
(3) Make at least one visit to the dentist a year.
(4) Put plastic gel on your teeth frequently.
(5) Use dental floss between your teeth daily.

Answer

Question 1 [43] (4)
Question 2 [44] (3)
Question 3 [45] (4)
Question 4 [46][47] (3),(5)

タイトルとURLをコピーしました