Physical activity in your childhood, such as playing sports and exercising, can greatly benefit your health when you are older. Therefore, it is important to promote physical activity in childhood for one’s good health. The schoolyard is one place where children and adolescents can be encouraged to take part in physical activity. Thus, knowing how schoolyards are used by students may give us some helpful ideas to promote their physical activity.

A study was conducted at four schools in Denmark in order to investigate how much different types of schoolyard areas were used and whether students were active or passive in those areas. In the study, schoolyard areas were classified and defined by their primary characteristics. Grass represented playing fields and natural green lawn areas, often used for soccer, but without any marked lines or goals. Multi-court referred to fenced areas on various surfaces, like artificial grass and rubber, designed for tennis and other such ball games. Natural represented areas with, for example, bushes, trees, and natural stones. Playground represented areas with play equipment, such as swings and slides on safe surfaces like sand. Solid Surface described the areas with the hardest surfaces, like concrete. These areas were identified by flat open spaces, often having numerous markings painted for games and benches set in different places.

Using GPS devices and other instruments, the researchers measured the lengths of time the students spent in the different schoolyard areas as well as the degrees of their physical activity. Figure 1 displays the average amounts of time spent per day in each area for All students and those averages divided into Children (aged 12 and under) and Adolescents (aged 13 and over). Solid Surface was clearly the area in which All students spent most of their time, followed by Multi-court then Grass. Natural and Playground showed similar averages for All students, with the average for All students in Playground being just over two minutes.

Figure 1. Average times spent in each area by All students, Children, and Adolescents.

Furthermore, the study revealed differences between the average amounts of time spent in schoolyards by Children and Adolescents. In comparison with Adolescents, Children spent more time in all schoolyard areas except for Natural areas. The greater amount of time spent by Children might be explained by the fact that, according to the regulations at all four schools, Children could not leave the schoolyard during lunch time, but Adolescents could when they wanted to.

When looking at the degree of physical activity, researchers discovered differences among the schoolyard areas. Students were most active in Grass and Playground areas. On the other hand, students were quite passive in Solid Surface areas, with Adolescents spending only 7% of their time there being physically active.

The findings of this study show the importance of investigating the potential of various environments and features in schoolyards. To promote students’ health, it is also beneficial to observe how varieties of games Children and Adolescents play affect the length of time spent taking part in physical activity. Let us now take a look at these relationships.

(Henriette Bondo Andersen 他(2015) Objectively Measured Differences in Physical Activity in Five Types of Schoolyard Area を参考に作成)

問1 According to the passage, what is the difference between Multi-court and Solid Surface? 35

① Unlike Multi-court, Solid Surface contains artificial grass for younger students to play on.
② Unlike Multi-court, Solid Surface does not contain boundaries marked for students’ games.
③ Unlike Solid Surface, Multi-court has a relatively soft surface made of various materials.
④ Unlike Solid Surface, Multi-court is not surrounded by anything, which makes it easy to access.

問2 In Figure 1, which of the following do (A), (B), (C), and (D) refer to? 36

① (A) Grass  (B) Multi-court  (C) Natural  (D) Playground
② (A) Grass  (B) Multi-court  (C) Playground  (D) Natural
③ (A) Multi-court (B) Grass  (C) Natural  (D) Playground
④ (A) Multi-court  (B) Grass  (C) Playground  (D) Natural

問3 The main purpose of this passage is to 37.

① discuss the benefits of being physically active at school in childhood
② give advice to increase the number of physically active adolescents
③ introduce schools that encourage students to play on grassed areas
④ show that types of schoolyards affect students’ behavior there

問4 What topic is most likely to follow the last paragraph? 38

① The benefits of studying various school environments for different activities
② The connections between types of games and lengths of time being active
③ The influence of the schoolyard environment on Adolescents’ physical activity
④ The way schoolyard surfaces affect the time spent doing physical activity









問1 35 正解 ③
① 「多目的コート」とは異なり、「硬い表面」には幼い生徒が遊ぶための人工芝が含まれている。
② 「多目的コート」とは異なり、「硬い表面」には生徒の競技のために印をつけた境界線は含まれていない。
③ 「硬い表面」とは異なり、「多目的コート」にはさまざまな素材で作られた比較的柔らかい表面がある。
④ 「硬い表面」とは異なり、「多目的コート」は何にも囲まれていないため、利用しやすい。

問2 36 正解 ①
① (A)芝生 (B)多目的コート (C)自然 (D)遊び場
② (A)芝生 (B)多目的コート (C)遊び場 (D)自然
③ (A)多目的コート (B)芝生 (C)自然 (D)遊び場
④ (A)多目的コート (B)芝生 (C)遊び場 (D)自然

問3 37 正解 ④
① 子供時代に学校で身体的に活動的であることの利点について議論する
② 身体的に活動的な青少年の数を増やすために助言を与える
③ 生徒が芝生の区域で遊ぶことを促している学校を紹介する
④ 校庭の種類がそこでの生徒の行動に影響を与えることを示す

問4 38 正解 ②
① 様々な活動のために様々な学校環境を調査することの利点
② 競技の種類と活動時間の長さの関係
③ 校庭の環境が青少年の身体活動に与える影響
④ 校庭の表面が身体活動に費やす時間に影響を与える方法




問1 The purpose of the IAYP Video Clip Competition is to provide 39.

① a place to meet new friends of the same age
② an airplane ticket to Australia to create a video clip
③ instructions to create a video clip on a computer
④ opportunities for young people to exhibit their works

問2 Members of a high school baseball team will submit a four-minute video clip about their bonds with players from a sister school abroad. Under which category should the video clip be entered? 40

① Category A
② Category B
③ Category C
④ Category D

問3 Which of the following meets the submission requirements for this competition? 41

① A nine-minute mystery drama featuring a young Japanese detective
② A six-minute video clip showing students practicing for a rugby game
③ A three-minute video clip that won third prize at a local film festival
④ A three-minute video clip uploaded to this website on October 30, 2017

Video Clip Competition: Call for Entries

The International Association of Young Producers (IAYP) is proud to open its annual Video Clip Competition again this year. This is a great way to share your creations with a wide audience. Anyone aged 25 and under can participate. The IAYP invites submissions in the following four categories:

ThemeMaximum length
Category AA topic related to a team sport3 minutes
Category BAn idea connected to friendship5 minutes
Category CA social problem based on a true story5 minutes
Category DA mystery with a dramatic ending7 minutes

The deadline is 11:59 pm, October 31, 2017 (Japan Standard Time). The three best clips in each category will be selected by a committee of famous video creators and posted on this website in December. One overall grand champion will be awarded a ticket to the next IAYP Conference in Sydney, Australia. So, don’t miss this chance! Get out your video camera and start filming!

Follow these steps:
> Shoot a video and edit it on a computer to an appropriate length for the category you choose.
> Click here to enter your details and upload your video clip.

Rules and conditions:
> Each person or group can choose only one category.
> Only clips sent before the deadline will be accepted.
> Clips must be original and submitted to a competition for the first time.


問1 39 正解 ④
① 同年代の新しい友達と出会う場所
② ビデオクリップを作成するためのオーストラリアへの航空券
③ コンピューターでビデオクリップを作成するための指導
④ 若者が作品を展示する機会

問2 40 正解 ②
① カテゴリーA
② カテゴリーB
③ カテゴリーC
④ カテゴリーD

問3 41 正解 ④
① 日本の若い探偵が登場する9分のミステリードラマ
② ラグビーの試合のために練習をしている生徒を映した6分間のビデオクリップ
③ 地元の映画祭で3位を受賞した3分間のビデオクリップ
④ 2017年10月30日にこのウェブサイトにアップロードされた3分のビデオクリップ


国際若者製作者協会(IAYP)は、今年も毎年恒例の映像クリップコンテストを開催します。これはあなたの作品を幅広い観客と共有するための素晴らしい方法です。25歳以下の人なら誰でも参加できます。 IAYPは、次の4つのカテゴリーに応募を依頼します。